0-9   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Ploughing (tillage)

Mechanical cultivation of agricultural soils by the plough to different depths (20 - 30cm), creating arable land.


A bog formed in shallow depressions with poor drainage, supporting predominantly evergreen shrubs or small trees.

Primary mineral

A mineral that has not been altered chemically since crystallization and deposition from molten lava. See also secondary mineral.

Protection of soil

Conscious process necessary for soil and soil properties preservation realised at different levels (personal, local, national, continental) and using information obtained by soil research. Sustainability is the result of this process.

Provisioning services

The products obtained from ecosystems, including, for example, genetic resources, food and fiber, and fresh water.


The unconsolidated mantle of weathered rock and soil material on the Earth's surface, sometimes considered to be loose earth materials above solid rock.

Regulating services

The benefits obtained from the regulation of ecosystem processes, including, for example, the regulation of climate, water, and some human diseases.

Root exudates

Substances released from plant root system in drops or small quantities of carbohydrates, organic acids, vitamins and many other substances essential for life of soil micro-organisms.

Saline soil

A non-sodic soil (see sodic soil) containing sufficient soluble salt to adversely affect the growth of most crop plants. The lower limit of electrical conductivity in the saturation extract of such soils is conventionally set at 4 dS m-1(at 25°C), though sensitive plants are affected at about half this salinity and highly tolerant ones at about twice this salinity.

Saline-sodic soil

Salt-affected soils with a high exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) greater than 15%, pH usually less than 8.5; in general these soils are not suitable for agriculture.

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