The non-material benefits people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, recreation, and aesthetic experience, including, e.g., knowledge systems, social relations, and aesthetic values.
Removal of calcium carbonate or calcium ions from the soil by leaching.
Any area which delivers services such as freshwater, micro climate regulation, recreation, etc, to a large proximate population, usually cities. This is sometimes referred to as green infrastructure.
A dynamic complex of plant, animal, and microorganism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit. (MA, 2005a) For practical purposes it is important to define the spatial dimensions of concern.
A subset of the interactions between ecosystem structure and processes that underpin the capacity of an ecosystem to provide goods and services.
The direct and indirect contributions of ecosystems to human wellbeing. The concept ‘‘ecosystem goods and services’’ is synonymous with ecosystem services.
Conduction of electricity through water or a solution of soil commonly used to estimate the soluble salt content in solution, e.g. soil solution.
The wearing away of the land surface by water, wind, ice, gravity or other natural or anthropogenic agents that abrade, detach and remove soil particles or rock material from one point on the earth's surface, for deposition elsewhere, including gravitational creep and so-called tillage erosion.
Group of hard crystalline minerals that consist of aluminum silicates of sodium or calcium or barium.
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